Performance Analysis and Working Fluids Selection of Organic Rankine Cycle in a Triple Power Generation System Combined with Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cycles

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Aerospace, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Iran

2 Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran


Many industrial processes have low temperature heat losses and are generally ignored due to the lack of effective heat recovery methods. Ignoring these heat sources can cause heat pollution and damage to the environment. Using the low-temperature organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a good solution to this problem. The main target of this research is to model and analyze the performance of two hybrid systems, gas turbine (GT), steam Turbine (ST) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with the hybrid GT, ORC and SOFC cycle (SOFC+ GT+ ORC) from the thermodynamic and exergy perspectives. Studies show that the output power of a combined system with a steam cycle is higher than that of a system with an organic Rankine cycle, but this higher output does not necessarily mean that this cycle is better. The use of a steam cycle at a higher power range and higher temperature of the inlet gases of turbine is more justified. The results show that the use of toluene fluid in the organic Rankine cycle among the analyzed fluids produces the most power at the condenser temperature of 319 Kelvin.


[1] He, Ting, and Wensheng Lin. “Energy saving research of natural gas liquefaction plant based on waste heat utilization of gas turbine exhaust.” Energy Conversion and Management 225 (2020): 113468.
[2] Musharavati, Farayi, Shoaib Khanmohammadi, Amirhossein Pakseresht, and Saber Khanmohammadi. “Waste heat recovery in an intercooled gas turbine system: Exergo-economic analysis, triple objective optimization, and optimum state selection.” Journal of Cleaner Production 279 (2021): 123428.
[3] Pirkandi, Jamasb, Arman Maroufi, and Shahram Khodaparast. “Parametric simulation and performance analysis of a solar gas turbine power plant from thermodynamic and exergy perspectives.” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 32, no. 5 (2018): 2365-2375.
[4] Maheshwari, Mayank, and Onkar Singh. “Comparative evaluation of different combined cycle configurations having simple gas turbine, steam turbine and ammonia water turbine.” Energy 168 (2019): 1217-1236.
[5] Maroufi, Arman, Jamasb Pirkandi, and Mohammad Ommian. 2022. “Exergy and Economic Investigation of Different Strategies of Hybrid Systems Consisting of Gas Turbine (GT) and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)”. International Journal of Integrated Engineering 14 (1):127-39.
[6] Carapellucci, Roberto, and Lorena Giordano. “Regenerative gas turbines and steam injection for repowering combined cycle power plants: Design and part-load performance.” Energy Conversion and Management 227 (2021): 113519.
[7] He, Yijian, Shupeng Zheng, and Gang Xiao. “Solar hybrid steam-injected gas turbine system with novel heat and water recovery.” Journal of Cleaner Production 276 (2020): 124268.
[8] Hosseini, Seyed Ehsan. “Design and analysis of renewable hydrogen production from biogas by integrating a gas turbine system and a solid oxide steam electrolyzer.” Energy Conversion and Management 211 (2020): 112760.
[9] Rossi, Iacopo, Alberto Traverso, and David Tucker. “SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System: A simplified framework for dynamic simulation.” Applied Energy 238 (2019): 1543-1550.
[10] Jamasb Pirkandi, Majid Ghassemi, Mohammad Hossein Hamedi. “Performance comparison of direct and indirect hybrid systems of gas turbine and solar oxide fuel cell from thermodynamic and exergy viewpoints”, Modares Mechanical Engineering, Volume:12 Issue:3 (2012): 117-133.
[11] Pirkandi, J., and Ommian, M. (May 9, 2018). “Thermo-Economic Operation Analysis of SOFC–GT Combined Hybrid System for Application in Power Generation Systems.” ASME. J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. February 2019; 16(1): 011001.
[12] Lai, Haoxiang, Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, and Thomas A. Adams II. “Design and eco-technoeconomic analyses of SOFC/GT hybrid systems accounting for long-term degradation effects.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 46, no. 7 (2021): 5612-5629.
[13] Pirkandi, J., Jahromi, M., Sajadi, S.Z. et al. Thermodynamic performance analysis of three solid oxide fuel cell and gas microturbine hybrid systems for application in auxiliary power units. Clean Techn Environ Policy 20, 1047–1060 (2018). 
[14] Lai, Haoxiang, Nor Farida Harun, David Tucker, and Thomas A. Adams II. “Design and Eco-techno-economic Analyses of SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems Accounting for Long-Term Degradation.” In Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, vol. 48, pp. 415-420. Elsevier, 2020.
[15] Eisavi, Beneta, Ata Chitsaz, Javad Hosseinpour, and Faramarz Ranjbar. “Thermo-environmental and economic comparison of three different arrangements of solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid systems.” Energy Conversion and Management 168 (2018): 343-356.
[16] Huang, Yu, and Ali Turan. “Mechanical equilibrium operation integrated modelling of recuperative solid oxide fuel cell–gas turbine hybrid systems: Design conditions and off-design analysis.” Applied Energy (2020): 116237.
[17] Hedberg, Garrett, Ryan Hamilton, and Dustin McLarty. “Design and performance analysis of a de-coupled solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine hybrid.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 45, no. 55 (2020): 30980-30993.
[18] Guo, Yinglun, Zeting Yu, Guoxiang Li, and Hongxia Zhao. “Performance assessment and optimization of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine cogeneration system.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 45, no. 35 (2020): 17702-17716.
[19] Azizi, Mohammad Ali, and Jacob Brouwer. “Progress in solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power systems: System design and analysis, transient operation, controls and optimization.” Applied energy 215 (2018): 237-289.
[20] Pirkandi, Jamasb, Hossein Penhani, and Arman Maroufi. “Thermodynamic analysis of the performance of a hybrid system consisting of steam turbine, gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC-GT-St).” Energy Conversion and Management 213 (2020): 112816.
[21] Ezzat, M. F., and I. Dincer. “Energy and exergy analyses of a novel ammonia combined power plant operating with gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell systems.” Energy 194 (2020): 116750.
[22] Chen, Yunru, Meng Wang, Vincenzo Liso, Sheila Samsatli, Nouri J. Samsatli, Rui Jing, Jincan Chen, Ning Li, and Yingru Zhao. “Parametric analysis and optimization for exergoeconomic performance of a combined system based on solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle.” Energy Conversion and Management 186 (2019): 66-81.
[23] Al-Hamed, K. H. M., and I. Dincer. “A new direct ammonia solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine based integrated system for electric rail transportation.” ETransportation 2 (2019): 100027.
[24] Minutillo, Mariagiovanna, Alessandra Perna, Elio Jannelli, Viviana Cigolotti, Suk Woo Nam, Sung Pil Yoon, and Byeong Wan Kwon. “Coupling of biomass gasification and SOFC–gas turbine hybrid system for small scale cogeneration applications.” Energy procedia 105 (2017): 730-737.
[25] Yuksel, Yunus Emre, Murat Ozturk, and Ibrahim Dincer. “Performance investigation of a combined biomass gasifier-SOFC plant for compressed hydrogen production.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 45, no. 60 (2020): 34679-34694.
[26] Gholamian, E., and V. Zare. “A comparative thermodynamic investigation with environmental analysis of SOFC waste heat to power conversion employing Kalina and Organic Rankine Cycles.” Energy Conversion and Management 117 (2016): 150-161.
[27] Kim, Young Sang, Young Duk Lee, and Kook Young Ahn. “System integration and proof-of-concept test results of SOFC–engine hybrid power generation system.” Applied Energy 277 (2020): 115542.
[28] Sadat, Seyed Mohammad Sattari, Hadi Ghaebi, and Arash Mirabdolah Lavasani. “4E analyses of an innovative polygeneration system based on SOFC.” Renewable Energy 156 (2020): 986-1007.
[29] Mehrpooya, Mehdi, Bahram Ghorbani, and Hadi Abedi. “Biodiesel production integrated with glycerol steam reforming process, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant.” Energy Conversion and Management 206 (2020): 112467.
[30] Chan, S. H., H. K. Ho, and Y. Tian. “Modelling of simple hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power plant.” Journal of power sources 109, no. 1 (2002): 111-120.
[31] Cengel, Yunus A., and Michael A. Boles. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach 6th Editon (SI Units). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, 2007.
[32] Song, Jian, Chun-wei Gu, and Xiaodong Ren. “Parametric design and off-design analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system.” Energy Conversion and Management 112 (2016): 157-165.