Thermoexergetic analysis of common rail direct injection diesel engine on optimized multiple injection strategy of performance and emission using congress grass tamarind shell co-pyrolysis oil blend and diesel

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological university, Anantapur-515002, Andhra Pradesh, India

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri kalahasteeswara Institute of Technology, Srikalahasti-517640, Andhra Pradesh, India


Internal combustion engine energy and exergy analysis is essential when choosing a biofuel that can be used as an alternative to conventional diesel, as these analyses provide concerns about the quantity and quality of available energy. In this study, the multiple injection strategies (MIS) in an improved common rail direct injection (CRDI) diesel engine running on 20% blend of Congress grass Tamarind shell co-pyrolysis oil (CGTSCPO20) and diesel is optimized and energy and exergy analysis has been made at optimized condition. The optimal result reveals that there was a slight improvement in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and reduction in emissions. By increasing the IOP from 600 bar to 1100 bar with the same fuel IT of 10 bTDC, the performance is enhanced. Studies reveal that, apart from nitrogen oxides (NOx), emissions decrease under ideal circumstances of 80% load and 1000 bar pressure when brake thermal efficiency (BTE) increases. From the experimental results, it was observed that destruction of exergy for CGTSCPO20 and diesel were 59.24% and 50.17%, respectively.


Main Subjects

[1] Senthil Kumar M. Experimental investigations on the efficient use of vegetable oils in diesel engines; 2003.
[2] Laksmono N, Paraschiv M, Loubar K, Tazerout M. Biodiesel production from biomass gasification tar via thermal/ catalytic cracking. Fuel processing technology. 2013;106:776–783.
[3] Appels L, Lauwers J, Degr`eve J, Helsen L, Lievens B, Willems K, et al. Anaerobic digestion in global bio-energy production: potential and research challenges. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2011;15(9):4295–4301.
[4] Toor SS, Rosendahl L, Rudolf A. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: A review of subcritical water technologies. Energy. 2011;36(5):2328–2342.
[5] Demirbas A, Arin G. An overview of biomass pyrolysis. Energy sources. 2002;24(5):471–482.
[6] Mohan D, Pittman Jr CU, Steele PH. Pyrolysis of wood/biomass for bio-oil: a critical review. Energy & fuels. 2006;20(3):848–889.
[7] Chen W, Shi S, Zhang J, Chen M, Zhou X. Copyrolysis of waste newspaper with high-density polyethylene: Synergistic effect and oil characterization. Energy Conversion and Management. 2016;112:41–48.
[8] Ferrara F, Orsini A, Plaisant A, Pettinau A. Pyrolysis of coal, biomass and their blends: Performance assessment by thermogravimetric analysis. Bioresource technology. 2014;171:433–441.
[9] Guan Y, Ma Y, Zhang K, Chen H, Xu G, Liu W, et al. Co-pyrolysis behaviors of energy grass and lignite. Energy conversion and management. 2015;93:132–140.
[10] Ben H, Ragauskas AJ. Comparison for the compositions of fast and slow pyrolysis oils by NMR characterization. Bioresource technology. 2013;147:577–584.
[11] Dong Cq, Zhang Zf, Lu Q, Yang Yp. Characteristics and mechanism study of analytical fast pyrolysis of poplar wood. Energy conversion and Management. 2012;57:49–59.
[12] Capunitan JA, Capareda SC. Assessing the potential for biofuel production of corn stover pyrolysis using a pressurized batch reactor. Fuel. 2012;95:563–572.
[13] Park YK, Yoo ML, Lee HW, Park SH, Jung SC, Park SS, et al. Effects of operation conditions on pyrolysis characteristics of agricultural residues. Renewable Energy. 2012;42:125–130.
[14] Pattiya A, Sukkasi S, Goodwin V. Fast pyrolysis of sugarcane and cassava residues in a free-fall reactor. Energy. 2012;44(1):1067–1077.
[15] Pattiya A, Suttibak S. Production of bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of agricultural residues from cassava plantations in a fluidised-bed reactor with a hot vapour filtration unit. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2012;95:227–235.
[16] Bhaskar T, Bhavya B, Singh R, Naik DV, Kumar A, Goyal HB. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to biofuels. In: Biofuels. Elsevier; 2011. p. 51–77.
[17] Rakopoulos C, Giakoumis E. Comparative firstand second-law parametric study of transient diesel engine operation. Energy. 2006;31(12):1927–1942.
[18] Rakopoulos CD, Kyritsis DC. Comparative second-law analysis of internal combustion engine operation for methane, methanol, and dodecane fuels. Energy. 2001;26(7):705–722.
[19] Rosen MA, Dincer I. Exergy as the confluence of energy, environment and sustainable development. Exergy, an International journal. 2001;1(1):3–13.
[20] Van Gerpen JH, Shapiro HN. Second-Law Analysis of Diesel Engine Combustion. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power. 1990 01;112(1):129–137. Available from:
[21] Zheng J, Caton JA. Second law analysis of a low temperature combustion diesel engine: effect of injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation. Energy. 2012;38(1):78–84.
[22] Caliskan H, Tat ME, Hepbasli A, Van Gerpen JH. Exergy analysis of engines fuelled with biodiesel from high oleic soybeans based on experimental values. International Journal of Exergy. 2010;7(1):20–36.
[23] Canakci M, Hosoz M. Energy and exergy analyses of a diesel engine fuelled with various biodiesels. Energy Sources, Part B. 2006;1(4):379–394.
[24] da Costa YJR, de Lima AGB, Bezerra Filho CR, de Araujo Lima L. Energetic and exergetic analyses of a dual-fuel diesel engine. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2012;16(7):4651–4660.
[25] L´opez I, Quintana C, Ruiz J, Cruz-Perag´on F, Dorado M. Effect of the use of olive–pomace oil biodiesel/diesel fuel blends in a compression ignition engine: Preliminary exergy analysis. Energy conversion and Management. 2014;85:227–233.
[26] Sekmen P, Yılba¸sı Z. Application of energy and exergy analyses to a CI engine using biodiesel fuel. Mathematical and Computational Applications. 2011;16(4):797–808.
[27] Debnath BK, Sahoo N, Saha UK. Thermodynamic analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine running with palm oil methyl ester. Energy Conversion and Management. 2013;65:147–154.
[28] Panigrahi N, Mohanty M, Acharya S, Mishra S, Mohanty R. Experimental investigation of karanja oil as a fuel for diesel engine-using shell and tube heat exchanger. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Chemical, Materials Science and Engineering. 2014;8(1):91–98.
[29] Panigrahi N, Mohanty MK, Mohanty RC, Mishra SR. Performance of a CI engine with energy and exergy analysis fuelled with neem oil methyl ester. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology. 2016;7(3):264–287.
[30] Karagoz M, Uysal C, Agbulut U, Saridemir S. Exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses of a CI engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel blends containing various metal-oxide nanoparticles. Energy. 2021;214:118830.
[31] Karami S, Gharehghani A. Effect of nano-particles concentrations on the energy and exergy efficiency improvement of indirect-injection diesel engine. Energy Reports. 2021;7:3273–3285.
[32] Nabi MN, Rasul M. Influence of second generation biodiesel on engine performance, emissions, energy and exergy parameters. Energy conversion and management. 2018;169:326–333.
[33] Nemati P, Jafarmadar S, Taghavifar H. Exergy analysis of biodiesel combustion in a direct injection compression ignition (CI) engine using quasi-dimensional multi-zone model. Energy. 2016;115:528–538.
[34] Sarıko¸c S, Ors ¨ ˙I, Unalan S. An experimental study on energy-exergy analysis and sustainability index in a diesel engine with direct injection diesel-biodiesel-butanol fuel blends. fuel. 2020;268:117321.
[35] S¸anli BG, Uludamar E. Energy and exergy analysis of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and biodiesel fuels at various engine speeds. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects. 2020;42(11):1299–1313.
[36] Yesilyurt MK, Arslan M. Analysis of the fuel injection pressure effects on energy and exergy efficiencies of a diesel engine operating with biodiesel. Biofuels. 2018;.
[37] Agarwal AK, Dhar A, Gupta JG, Kim WI, Choi K, Lee CS, et al. Effect of fuel injection pressure and injection timing of Karanja biodiesel blends on fuel spray, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics. Energy Conversion and Management. 2015;91:302–314.
[38] Jiaqiang E, Pham M, Deng Y, Nguyen T, Duy V, Le D, et al. Effects of injection timing and injection pressure on performance and exhaust emissions of a common rail diesel engine fueled by various concentrations of fish-oil biodiesel blends. Energy. 2018;149:979–989.
[39] Kanth S, Ananad T, Debbarma S, Das B. Effect of fuel opening injection pressure and injection timing of hydrogen enriched rice bran biodiesel fuelled in CI engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2021;46(56):28789–28800.
[40] Khandal S, Banapurmath N, Gaitonde V. Effect of hydrogen fuel flow rate, fuel injection timing and exhaust gas recirculation on the performance of dual fuel engine powered with renewable fuels. Renewable energy. 2018;126:79–94.
[41] Jayaraman J, Reddy S, et al. Effects of injection pressure on performance & emission characteristics of CI engine using graphene oxide additive in bio-diesel blend. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2021;44:3716–3722.
[42] Stone R. Introduction to internal combustion engines. vol. 3. Springer; 1999.
[43] Shinde AB, Umadi OA, Gawali SV, Kamble A. Common Rail Direct Injection. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2020;7(4):3095–3102.
[44] Indrareddy N, Venkateswarlu K, Konijeti R. Experimental investigation of algae biofuel–diesel blends on performance of a CRDI diesel engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy. 2022;43(1):2218–2225.
[45] Aalam CS, Saravanan C, Kannan M. Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel
engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel. Alexandria engineering journal. 2015;54(3):351–358.
[46] Khandal S, Banapurmath N, Gaitonde V. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation, fuel injection pressure and injection timing on the performance of common rail direct injection engine powered with honge biodiesel (BHO). Energy. 2017;139:828–841.
[47] Ashok B, Nanthagopal K, Saravanan B, Somasundaram P, Jegadheesan C, Chaturvedi B, et al. A novel study on the effect lemon peel oil as a fuel in CRDI engine at various injection strategies. Energy conversion and management. 2018;172:517–528.
[48] Duda K, Wierzbicki S, Smieja M, Mikulski M. ´ Comparison of performance and emissions of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel of different origin. Fuel. 2018;212:202–222.
[49] Roy S, Ghosh A, Das AK, Banerjee R. A comparative study of GEP and an ANN strategy to model engine performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI assisted single cylinder diesel engine under CNG dual-fuel operation. Journal of natural gas science and engineering. 2014;21:814–828.
[50] Rath M, Acharya S. Exergy and energy analysis of diesel engine using karanja methyl ester under varying compression ratio. International Journal of Engineering. 2014;27(8):1259–1268.
[51] Rath MK, Mohanta DK. Exergy and energy analysis of compression ignition engine using diesel and karanja oil blends under varying compression ratio and engine load. Biofuels. 2023;14(2):173–182.